The Theory and Practice of the Construction of Europe

Course description

The aim of the course is to introduce students to the history of the theories and practices on the idea of ‘democratic world society’ as a possible answer to war. The course concentrates on the history of the theory and practice of the construction of Europe as part of the world community. The theory and practice of international relations and of globalisation from the 14th century to today is analysed within this framework. The course is based on the analysis of the most important theoretical and legal documents of the European anti-war political thinking, of democratic international relations, and of the construction of Europe. On the basis of these documents students can study and research the historical background of the idea of ‘democratic world society’, which is one of the most important contemporary ideas used as a possible answer of civilised societies against wars.


Éva Bóka, PhD, Dr Habil. (email:

The following themes will be studied and discussed:


How do people approach issues on social organization, with false and right images; imaginary communities World civilizations The main characteristics of the European civilization

1.-5. The early modern and modern bases of peaceful association policy in opposition to war

  • European thinkers in search of the harmony and peace among European people and among civilizations: The classical idea of world federation and the emergence of the idea of personalist federalism in opposition to war (Aristotle, Erasmus versus Machiavelli, Althusius versus Bodin, Locke, Montesquieu, Saint-Pierre – Rousseau – Kant, Ferguson, Tocqueville, Proudhon, Eötvös)
  • 2. Ideas on peaceful associations in practice
    • The main types of unions of states: classical constitutional federalism (the Treaty of the Union of Utrecht, 1579; the American constitution of 1787; the Swiss constitution of 1848); the phenomenon of nation state and of nationalism; the idea of personalist federalism as a means against nationalism in the Habsburg Empire (Eötvös, Renner, Naumann)
  • 3-4. The development of the ideas on democratic international and European association policy: the constitutional federalist, unionist and functionalist bases of the European integration policy (1919-1949);
    • Unionism: New international organization principles of civil society in classical confederalist form: Wilson and the League of Nations; Unionism (Churchill)
    • Federalism: Constitutional federalism: the Pan-European Movement (Richard Coudenhove-Kalergi); Personalism; unanimous organic democracy; the division of the economic and political state (Salvador de Madariaga); Against the totalitarian states in the name of the democratic European federation (Coudenhove-Kalergi, Ortega y Gasset, Thomas Mann, and Salvador de Madariaga); The European Federalist Movement (Altiero Spinelli); New European incremental personalist federalism (Denis de Rougemont, Hendrik Brugmans); Functionalism (David Mitrany); Functionalist-federalism (Jean Monnet)

5. Democratization of the international organization and the international law:

  • Functionalist-federalism and confederalism: the United Nations Organization; the Charter of the United Nations; Universalism: the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; Classical confederalism in Europe: The Council of Europe and the Statute of the Council of Europe

6-9. Theories on the renewal of the principles of the European association policy

  • 6. “The golden age” of the construction of the European Community, 1950-1953; the principles of the new federalist supranational association policy
    • The “Monnet-method”; Europe’s first constitution: the Draft Treaty Embodying the Statute of the European Political Community, 1953.
  • 7. The emergence of a new type association policy in the supranational European Community; Federalists versus intergovernmentalists; the federalist-intergovernmentalist compromise
    • Integration theories emerging from practice (The influence of the supranational European institutions of the European Community on the theories and practices of the association policy in Europe); Functionalism (Mitrany); Federalist-functionalism (Jean Monnet); Constitutional supranational federalism (Altiero Spinelli, Walter Hallstein); Neo-functionalism (Ernst Haas, Leon N. Lindberg) ; Classical European confederalism (De Gaulle, Thatcher); Intergovernmentalism (Andrew Moravcsik) ; Neo-federalism (John Pinder) ; Personalist federalism (federation of persons and states) (Jacques Delors); Interdependency (Robert O. Keohane)
  • 8. The EU as a new type of civil society: federalist-intergovernmentalist union of states based on multilevel governance (Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe, 2003)
    • The role of the federalist principles – the personal principle, and the principle of subsidiarity – in the European law
  • 9. “The Europeanization of Europe”
    • EU enlargement and the unification of Europe; Rethinking of the democratic association policy in Europe; The vision of a free, non-governmental personal associational policy based on truth and on the real interests of persons (Vaclav Havel)

10. In search of European identity: the test of the results of the new type European association policy

11-15. Europe and globalization

  • 11. The EU’s role in the process of globalization
    • What is global in the principles of European civil society and European law?
  • 12. Europeanization of the world?
    • The interaction of the European and Asiatic cultures; The questions of modernization and Europeanization/Westernization of the world ; The question of the universal validity of the principles of the European civil society
  • 13. The clash of civilizations versus harmony of civilizations (comparison of the European, Japanese, Chinese and Islam civilization)
  • 14. Contemporary plans on ‘global civil society’ (Havel, Kaldor, Keane)
  • 15. Ideas on the reform of the United Nations Organization


  1. Information for my students:
  2. Éva Bóka [2007]: The Idea of Subsidiarity in the European Federalist Thought. Grotius, The Journal of the Institute of International Studies of the Corvinus University of Budapest. Available online.
  3. Éva Bóka [2008]: Rethinking European Supranationalism in a Historical Perspective. Grotius, The Journal of the Institute of International Studies of the Corvinus University of Budapest, Vita (Discussion). Available online.
  4. Éva Bóka [2009]: The Europe-China Dialogue in a Historical Perspective. In: Grotius E-könyvtár (E-Library), 2009, Available online.
  5. Ian Brownlie (ed.) [1981, 1992]: The Basic Documents on Human Rights . Clarendon Press, Oxford.
  6. Ben Rosamond [2000]: Theories of European Integration . St. Martin’s Press Inc., New York.
  7. Michael Burgess [2000]: Federalism and European Union: The Building of Europe, 1950-2000 . Routledge, London.
  8. Neill Nugent [2003]: The Government and Politics of the European Union . Palgrave Macmillan, New York. 34-108, 111-292.
  9. Brent F. Nelsen - Alexander C-G. Stubb (eds.) [1994; 2004]: The European Union. Readings on the Theory and Practice of European Integration. Lynne Rienner Publishers, London.
  10. A.G. Harryvan and J. van der Harst (eds.) [1997]: Documents on European Union. Macmillan Press LTD., London.
  11. David Held & Anthony McGrew [1999]: Global Transformations. Politics, Economics and Culture. Polity Press, Cambridge. 414-452.
  12. Samuel P. Huntington [2002]: The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order . Simon and Schuster UK Ltd. London. 56-78, 301-321.
  13. Derek Heater [1996]: World Citizenship and Government. Cosmopolitan Ideas in the History of the Western Political Thought. Macmillan Press Ltd. London.
  14. Henryk Kierzkowski (ed.) [2002]: Europe and Globalization. Palgrave Macmillan, New York.
  15. Václav Havel: The Power of the Powerless. In: John Keane (ed.) [1985]: The Power of the Powerless. Citizens against the state in central-eastern Europe. Hutchinson and Co. Ltd. London. 23-96.
  16. Mary Kaldor [2004]: Global Civil Society. An Answer to War . Polity, Cambridge.
  17. The basic treaties of the European integration (ECSC, EURATOM, EEC, SEA, TEU, TA, TN), [2005]:
  18. A Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe, [2003]:
  19. Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe, [2004]:
  20. Treaty of Lisbon, [2007]:
  21. Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union, [2007]:

Proposed documents to choose for the presentation

  • The early modern and modern bases of a peaceful association policy, Themes 1-5:
    1. Political thinkers on the principles of peaceful organization of communities: Aristotle: The Politics; Erasmus: The Complaint of Peace; Johannes Althusius: Politica methodice digesta; Locke: Two Treatises of Government; Montesquieu: De l’esprit des lois; Saint-Pierre: Projet pour rendre la paix perpétuelle en Europe; Rousseau: Projet de paix perpétuelle and Jugement sur la paix perpétuelle; Kant: Zum ewigen Frieden ; Ferguson: An Essay on the History of Civil Society; A. Hamilton – J. Jay – J. Madison: The Federalist; Tocqueville: Democracy in America; Proudhon: Du principe fédératif; Eötvös: A nemzetiségi kérdés.
    2. Forms of unions of European states. The Treaty of the Union of Utrecht, 1579; The American (1787) and the Swiss (1848) constitutions as examples.
    3. The principles of the United Nations and of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and their role in the legal development of European unity. See:; UN Charter:
  • Theories on the principles of the European association policy, Themes 3-9
    1. Aristide Briand: Mémorandum sur l’organisation d’un régime d’Union fédérale européenne. Paris, le 1er mai 1930. In: A. Fleury (éd.) [1998]: Le Plan Briand d’Union fédérale. Peter Lang, Bern, Berlin, Frankfurt/M., New York, Paris, Wien. 569-582.
    2. Richard Nicolaus Coudenhove-Kalergi [1938]: Kommen die Vereinigten Staaten von Europa? Paneuropa Verlag, Glarus. 103-113. In English: R.N. Coudenhove-Kalergi [1939]: Europe must unite. Paneuropa Verlag, Genève.
    3. Salvador de Madariaga [1937]: Anarchy or Hierarchy. George Allen & Unwin Ltd. London. 77-85; 211-231.
    4. Altiero Spinelli – Ernesto Rossi: The Ventotene Manifesto, 1941. In: Walter Lipgens (eds.) [1985]: Documents on the History of European Integration. 1. Continental Plans for European Union, 1939-1945. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin. 471-484.
    5. Karl Polányi [1957]: The Great Transformation (The political and economic origins of our time). Beacon Paperback Edition, Rinehart and Company, Inc. USA. 237-248, 249-258.
    6. Denis de Rougemont: “The Federalist Attitude” 26 August 1947. In: W. Lipgens and Wilfried Loth (eds.) [1991]: Documents on the History of European Integration. 4. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, New York. 23-27.
    7. David Mitrany [1946]: A Working Peace System. An Argument for the Functional Development of International Organization. Epilogue. National Peace Council, London. 62-64.
    8. Winston S. Churchill: The Zurich Speech. Speeches on Europe. In: Robert Rhodes James (ed.) [1974]: W. S. Churchill. His Complete Speeches . 7-8. R.R. Bowker Company, New York and London.
    9. The Statute of the Council of Europe See Internet:
    10. Robert Schuman : La Déclaration du 9 Mai 1950. See Internet:
    11. Jean Monnet [1976]: Mémoires . Fayard, Paris. 348-353; 490-493. 449.
    12. Jean Monnet [1962]: A Ferment of Change. Journal of Common Market Studies . 1. (1). 203-211.
    13. Draft Treaty Embodying the Statute of the European Community. 1953. In: R. R. Bowie and C. J. Friedrich (eds.) [1954]: Studies in Federalism . Appendix II. Little, Brown and Co. 828-853; Richard T. Griffiths [2000]: Europe’s First Constitution. The European Political Community, 1952-1954. Federal Trust for Education and Research, London. 189-226.
    14. Charles de Gaulle: L’Europe. In: Charles de Gaulle [1970]: Mémoires d’espoir. Plon, Paris. 173- 177, 181-183, 205 -207.
    15. Margaret Thatcher: The European Family of Nations. Speech. Bruges, 1988. In: Martin Holmes (ed.) [1996]: The Eurosceptical Reader. Macmillan Press LTD, London; St. Martin’s Press, Inc. New York. 88-96.
    16. Walter Hallstein [1972]: Europe in the Making . George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London. 57-84; 84-102; 292-327.
    17. Leo Tindemans [1976]: European Union. Report by Mr. Leo Tindemans to the European Council. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.
    18. Altiero Spinelli: The European Adventure. In: Altiero Spinelli [1972]: The European Adventure . Tasks for the Enlarged Community . Charles Knight & CO LTD, London. 1-17.
    19. R. Bieber - J.P. – Jacqué - J.H.H. Weiler (eds.) [1985]: An Ever Closer Union. A Critical Analysis of the Draft Treaty Establishing the European Union. Office for Official Publications of European Communities, Luxembourg; Draft Treaty establishing the European Union, available on-line:
    20. Jacques Delors : Réconcilier l’idéal et la nécessité. Devant le Collège d’Europe à Bruges, le 17 octobre 1989. In: Jacques Delors [1992]: Le Nouveau Concert Européen. Editions Odile Jacob, Paris. 322-338.
    21. Jacques Delors: Economic and monetary union and relaunching the construction of Europe. In: Report on economic and monetary union in the European Community. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 1989. 63-67.
    22. Ernst Haas [1958]: The Uniting of Europe. Political, Social and Economic Forces, 1950-1957. Stanford University Press. In: Brent F. Nelsen –Alexander Stubb [2003] 145-149.
    23. Leon N. Lindberg [1963]: The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press. In: Brent F. Nelsen –Alexander Stubb [2003] 151-162.
    24. Alec Stone Sweet – Wayne Sandholtz [1998]: European Integration and Supranational Governance. Oxford University Press, Oxford. In: Brent F. Nelsen –Alexander Stubb [2003] 215-238.
    25. Robert O. Keohane – J. S. Nye [1977]: Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Little Brown and Co. Boston.
    26. Andrew Moravcsik [1991]: Negotiating the Single European Act: National Interests and Conventional Statecraft in European Community. International Organization . 45. 1.
    27. From confederacy to federation: thoughts on the finality of European integration. Speech by Joschka Fischer at the Humboldt University in Berlin, 12 May 2000. In: Christian Joerges - Yves Mény - H.H. Weiler (eds.) [2000]: What Kind of Constitution for What Kind of Polity? Reponses to Joschka Fischer. European University Institute, Florence. 19-31. See:
    28. Václav Havel: The Power of the Powerless. In: John Keane (ed.) [1985]: The Power of the Powerless. Citizens against the state in central-eastern Europe. Hutchinson and Co. Ltd. London. 23-96.
    29. István Bibó: Reflections on Social Development of Europe. In: István Bibó [1991]: Democracy, Revolution, Self-Determination. Selected writings. Ed.: Károly Nagy, Atlantic Research and Publications, Columbia University Press, New York. 421-523.
    30. Draft Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. Submitted to the European Council Meeting in Thessaloniki. 20. June 2003. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, 2003. See Internet, 2005:
  • In search of European identity, Theme 10
    1. Richard K. Herrmann - Thomas Risse - Marilynn B. Brewer (eds.) [2004]: Transnational Identities. Becoming European in the EU . Rowman & Littlefield publishers, INC. Oxford. 75-96; 161-185.
    2. Catharine Neveu: European Citizenship, Citizens of Europe and European Citizens. In: Irene Bellier - Thomas M. Wilson (eds.) [2000]: The Anthropology of the European Union . Berg, Oxford. 119-135.
    3. Laurie Buonanno – Ann Deakin: European Identity. In: Neill Nugent (ed.) [2004]: European Union Enlargement. Palgrave Macmillan, New York. 84-103.
  • Europe and globalization; Europeanization/Westernization; ’Global civil society’, Themes 11-15
    1. David Held - Anthony McGrew - David Goldblatt - Jonathan Perraton [1999]: Global Transformations (Politics, Economics and Culture) Polity Press, Cambridge. 414-452.
    2. Kevin H. O’Rourke: Europe and the Causes of Globalization, 1790-2000. In: Henryk Kierzkowski (ed.) [2002]: Europe and Globalization . Palgrave, Macmillan, New York. 64-86.
    3. Marcelo G. Kohen: Europe and the Standardization of the Law: Past and Present. In: H. Kierzkowski: Europe and Globalization . 87-103.
    4. André Liebich: Nationalizing the Globe, Globalizing the Nation. In: H. Kierzkowski: Europe and Globalization . 104-113.
    5. Albert Breton - Heinrich Ursprung: Globalization, Competitive Governments, and Constitutional Choice in Europe. In: H. Kierzkowski: Europe and Globalization . 274-301.
    6. Samuel P. Huntington [1997]: The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order? Simon & Schuster UK Ltd, London. 19-36; 56-78; 301-318.
    7. Václav Havel: The Power of the Powerless. In: John Keane (ed.) [1985]: The Power of the Powerless. Citizens against the state in central-eastern Europe. Hutchinson and Co. Ltd. London. 23-96.
    8. Jürgen Habermas [2001]: The Postnational Constellation and the Future of Democracy. In: J. Habermas: The Postnational Constellation. Political Essays . Polity Press, Cambridge, UK. 58-113.
    9. John Keane [2003]: Global civil society? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. 92-107.
    10. Mary Kaldor: Global Civil Society. An Answer to War . Polity, Cambridge, 2004. 15-50.
  • The legal practice of European integration, including all EU treaties; Themes 4-9, see

Websites, Internet (2009)

Documents on constitutional development
Internet Modern History Sourcebook
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, 1660
Locke: The Second Treatise of Civil Government, 1690
The Federalist Papers
The American Constitution
Constitition of the United States, 1787
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, 1789
Immanuel Kant: Perpetual Peace, 1795
Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America
Human rights
EU History Site
Globalization theories
Gateway to the European Union
Fondation Robert Schuman
Foundation Jean Monnet
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